Cucumber, scientifically known as Cucumis sativus, belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae that possess a wide range of health benefits. The cucumber fruit and seed are used to manage various medical conditions. Traditionally, it was used as a soothing agent to relieve general debility and help treat different skin conditions.
The whole plant of Cucumber contains various bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the health benefits. These include Saponarin, Vicenin-2, Apigenin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin, Isovitexin, Isoscoparin, Indole-3-carboxylic acid, Cucumegastigmanes I & II, Isoorientin, Orientin, Cucumerin, Dehydrovomifoliol, Cucurbitacins A, B, C, D, E and I. The fruit of Cucumber is a rich source of water, protein, fiber, sterols, fat, crepsin, proteolytic enzyme, ascorbic acid, oxidase, succinic, vitamin K, malic dehydrogenase, Nonenol, fatty acids, potassium, carbohydrate, manganese, calcium, phosphorus, iron and vitamin B. 
Health Benefits of Cucumber
Medical research studies reported the following health benefits of Cucumber.
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity
Studies reported the antioxidant activity of Cucumber that neutralizes free radicals and removes toxins. Thus, it relieves oxidative stress and protects cellular integrity. Also, Cucumber shows antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity against various pathological agents and reduces the risk of medical conditions. It helps against the infections caused by human and food-borne pathogens, including E. coli, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida tropicalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida glabrata, Staphylococcus Aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and other microbes. [1, 2]
Improve Skin Integrity
Cucumber contains potent phytochemicals that help various skin conditions. Medical studies reported that it nourishes the skin, provides a soothing effect, removes free radicals, and relieves swelling that promotes skin health and provides anti-wrinkle properties. Moreover, it inhibits the breakdown of elastin and increases moisturization that improves skin appetence. Besides, topical application of Cucumber fruit and leaves protect against sunlight and also inhibits melatonin production that supports the skin's youthful appearance. [1, 3]
Studies also reported the anti-diabetic activity of Cucumber by modulating the serum lipid and hepatic lipid peroxidation. It regulates and lowers the level of both total cholesterol and glucose that ameliorate the diabetes symptoms. Plus, the antioxidant activity of Cucumber may help the complications associated with diabetes. 
Other potential health benefits
Medical research studies reported that the seeds of Cucumber help burning sensation and constipation. Plus, they act as a tonic and improve intermittent fever. Moreover, Cucumber shows potential antiulcer activity and improves gastrointestinal health. Also, it promotes bowel moment and helps kidney function that aid diuresis. [1, 4]
The consumption of Cucumber is safe and does not cause any adverse events. However, it is advised to ask your physician in the case of pregnancy or if you have a severe medical condition. Plus, stop using Cucumber 2 weeks before surgery, and don't take it concomitantly with anti-diabetic medications.