Hormone healthy foods are always a hot topic in my Women's Health practice and the #1 question I am asked by my female patients:
"What foods can I eat to keep my female hormones in balance?"
As a Female Hormone Specialist I always want my patients eating as many cruciferous vegetables as possible since they contain the magic biochemical sulforaphane!
How does Sulforaphane help Female Hormones?
Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that naturally occurs in green and yellow vegetables. It is present in an inactive form; glucoraphanin in these vegetables. But, a family of enzymes known as myrosinase activates and converts it into activated Sulforaphane used for various health benefits that aid in the detoxification of estrogen. 
It is important to note that myrosinase enzymes only release and work on glucoraphanin when any damage to the plant occurs. So, if women want an active form of Sulforaphane, they must chop, chew or cut their vegetables before consumption. Plus, the raw green leafy vegetables contain a much higher content of Sulforaphane compared to cooked vegetables. Therefore it is best to only lightly steam sulforaphane rich vegetaqbles.
Vegetable sources of Sulforaphane
The following leafy green cruciferous vegetables contain high content of Sulforaphane.
Mechanisms of Action on Hormones
The exact mechanism of Sulforaphane is unclear; however, studies reported the following mechanisms responsible for various hormone health outcomes. These include:
Research studies report sulforaphane modulates the Nrf2/ARE pathway that leads to the activation and expression of genes responsible for coding endogenous enzymes, non-enzymes antioxidant, and cardioprotective and phase 2 detoxification enzymes.
The major detoxification enzymes include glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin reductase (TXNRD1), thioredoxin (TXN) glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), NADPH: Quinone reductase-1 (NQO1), and haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1). Thus, SFN shows potent antioxidant activity that relieves oxidative stress, promotes physiological functions, and protects vital body organs. Besides, it also positively modulates natural killer cells' activity and supports an immune function that reduces the risk of chronic medical conditions. 
Along with the antioxidant action, SFN inhibits some Phase 1 detoxification enzymes responsible for carcinogen activation. Plus, SFN acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that protects DNA damage and prevents cancer risk. Moreover, SFN arrests the abnormal cell cycle, inhibits angiogenesis, and induces apoptosis that provides the anti-cancerous activity. 
The anti-inflammatory activity of SFN involves the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and regulation of the NF-κB and inflammatory inducible enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and NO synthase (iNOS). 
Medical research studies about Sulforaphane and Hormones
Medical studies reported the following health benefits of Sulforaphane.
Various animal and lab studies confirm the anticancer activity of Sulforaphane. The above-discussed mechanisms help prevent cancer as well as fight cancer, reduce the tumor size, reduce blood vessels to the tumor, and suppress cancer cell proliferation.
Also, the antioxidant property potentiates the activity of Sulforaphane against cancerous cells via neutralizing the carcinogens. Studies also reported that SFN blocks gastric tumor formation and prevents the development of stomach cancer. Thus, an optimal amount of Sulforaphane improves cancer progression and reduces the risk of cancer, including breast cancer. [1, 2]
Studies reported that SFN inhibits adipogenesis (fat cell formation) and suppresses the synthesis of triglycerides and fat accumulation. The anti-obesity mechanism involves activating the AMPK pathway, downregulating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and suppressing the C/EBPα expression.
Plus, it promotes the activity of adiponectin and increases leptin responsiveness which helps prevent diet-induced obesity.
Additionally, medical research studies showed that Sulforaphane significantly improves high blood sugar levels and helps with type 2 diabetes mellitus symptoms. It regulates the hemoglobin A1C level and reduces the lipid peroxidation that significantly helps diabetes and its complications. [3, 4]
Support Cardiovascular functions
The potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Sulforaphane improve cardiovascular health. Animal studies showed that Sulforaphane increases the level of thioredoxin (Trx) and HO-1 (haemoxygenase-1) that provide cardioprotective properties.
Sulforaphane supports post-ischemic ventricular function, protects cardiomyocyte against apoptosis, and decreases myocardial infarct size that promotes heart functions. Additionally, it decreases inflammation in the arteries and prevents arteries from narrowing which causes high blood pressure, as well as other cardiovascular dysfunctions. 
SFN shows a bactericidal effect against Helicobacter pylori bacteria responsible for gastrointestinal complications, including gastric reflux and cancer. The antibacterial mechanism reported by studies includes the modulation of Nrf2 activators, anti-inflammatory activity, and direct bactericidal action of cruciferous vegetables. Also, the inhibition of urease by SFN support the bactericidal effect as most bacterial colonies use urease for their growth. [1, 7]
Different research studies reported that SFN alters estrogen metabolism and improves estrogen dominance. The induction of NADPH: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by SFN reduces the carcinogenic estrogen metabolite, known as catechol estrogen-3, 4-quinone, and suppresses the complications associated with estrogen dominance.
SFN increases the level of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) that detoxifies estrogen via conjugation and prevents the risk of adverse physiological effects such as DNA damage and abnormal cell growth. [5, 6]
Support Brain Function
Sulforaphane shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that helps neuroinflammation and supports neurological functions. It prevents brain damage, removes reactive oxygen species, relieves oxidative stress, and reduces the risk of mental decline. Plus, studies reported that it improves autism symptoms such as verbal communication and social interactions. Furthermore, SFN Protects dopaminergic cells and delays neuronal death that helps neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer’s diseases. [1, 8]
Other potential health benefits
Medical research studies also reported the Antiaging and skin protective effects of SFN. It prevents skin damage by protecting skin against ultraviolet radiation that promotes skin integrity and wellness.
Furthermore, Sulforaphane encourages gastrointestinal health and improves the symptoms of certain dysfunctions such as constipation. Also, it limits the activity of aflatoxin on liver cells and supports liver vitality. Plus, the induction of HO-1 (haemoxygenase-1) and phase 2 enzymes by SFN protect the lungs against oxidative agents and reduce the risk of various lung dysfunctions. [1, 8]
Sulforaphane supplementation or consumption of cruciferous green vegetables is generally very safe but can cause stomach upset at higher doses. Dosing should be managed by a knowledgeable alternative medicine doctor or Naturopath.
Please don't use sulforaphane with drugs such as zolmitriptan, olanzapine, cyclobenzaprine, theophylline, imipramine, etc without first checking with your Naturopathic Doctor. 
If you need my help with your nutrition or hormones, I would be happy to help! Simply pop over to my SCHEDULE page to treat yourself to a Naturopathic visit!
Dr. Nicole Sundene
Dr. Sundene is a Naturopathic Doctor in Scottsdale, Arizona, and is a Female Hormone Expert in Women's Health and Bioidentical Hormones. She specializes in Holistic Women's Health for Menopause, Thyroid, Hashimotos, PMS, Perimenopause, Autoimmune, Postpartum, Chronic Fatigue, Depression, Anxiety, Food Allergies, Digestion, Dermatology, Acne, Psoriasis, Eczema, and Adrenal Hormonal Conditions. In 1999 she began working for a Hormone Doctor prior to starting Naturopathic Medical School. With over 23 years of experience in both Prescription and Natural women's health and hormones, she presents to women the best-integrated health solutions for their Chronic Disease.
She has been an Herbalist for over 28 years and enjoys teaching women how to use herbs to balance their hormones, nutrition and optimize their health. Dr. Sundene relies on blood testing for her hormone metrics. The hormone testing is covered per the patient's insurance plan (not Medicaid) and conducted at certain points in the woman's menstrual cycle. To learn more about Hormone Testing for Women Visit: Bioidentical Hormones. Follow Dr. Sundene on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook for more tips on Women's Health, Female Hormones, and Naturopathy!
Dr. Nicole Sundene, NMD
Dr. Sundene is a Naturopathic Doctor in Scottsdale, Arizona, and is considered a Female Hormone Expert in Women's Health and Bioidentical Hormones. She specializes in Holistic Women's Health for Menopause, Thyroid, Hashimotos, PMS, Perimenopause, Autoimmune, Postpartum, Chronic Fatigue, Depression, Anxiety, Food Allergies, Digestion, Dermatology , Acne, Psoriasis, Eczema and Adrenal Hormonal Conditions. In 1999 she began working for a Hormone Doctor prior to starting Naturopathic Medical School. With over 22 years of experience in both Prescription and Natural women's health and hormones she presents to women the best integrated health solutions for their Chronic Disease. She has been an Herbalist for over 27 years and enjoys teaching women how to use herbs to balance their hormones, nutrition and optimize their health. Dr. Sundene relies on blood testing for her hormone metrics. The hormone testing is covered per the patient's insurance plan and conducted at certain points in the woman's menstrual cycle. To learn more about Hormone Testing for Women Visit: Bioidentical Hormones. Follow Dr. Sundene on Instagram, Twitter and Facebook for more tips on Women's Health, Female Hormones and Naturopathy!