Turmeric

May 12, 2021

Turmeric

Turmeric, botanically known as Curcuma longa, is a rhizomatous herbaceous plant known for its wide range of health benefits. It has great potential for treating and preventing a variety of medical conditions. The primary medicinal properties of Turmeric include anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-Cancerous, and anti-inflammatory activity. Historically, Turmeric was used as a spice in the meal and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes.

Turmeric's major phytochemicals are curcumin, zingiberene, eugenol, curcumenol, turmeronols, curcumol, turmerin, and turmerones. It also contains Vit C, beta-carotene, zinc, niacin, manganese, copper, iron, calcium, fiber, and potassium [1, 2].

Curcuminoids, including curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are the major and medicinally popular constituents of Turmeric. It is important to know that Turmeric is mostly reported for its medical benefits due to curcumin. However, Turmeric contains a limited amount of curcumin so, one must take extracted curcumin powder instead of taking the whole Turmeric [2, 3, 4].

Health benefits of Turmeric:

Turmeric has been used for centuries as a natural and safe remedy for medical ailments. Following are some of its prominent and common health benefits:

Strengthen the Immune system:

Turmeric boosts the immune response of the body via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. It helps the body to combat unfavorable conditions and reduce the risk of oxidative stress and inflammation. It also modulates other natural antioxidants' activity in the body, including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase. These antioxidants inhibit the free radical generation and increase the neutralization of toxins [4, 5].

Turmeric shows an anti-inflammatory activity via downregulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. These mediators include Tissue Necrosis Factor-α, Interleukin -6, Transforming Growth Factor-β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) [4, 5].

Turmeric improves immunity level against infections agent via its anti-microbial activity. It helps the body to relieve cold, nasal congestion, and flu by modulating the immune response against allergens and infectious agents. It has been reported that Turmeric increases the level of activated natural killer cells, macrophages, T- and B- lymphocytes, IgG, and dendritic cells. Turmeric's immunomodulatory effect significantly enhances the immune system fighting viral and bacterial infections, including H. Pylori, Escherichia coli, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus [2, 3, 6].

Studies have reported that Turmeric improves respiratory tract infections symptoms, including asthma, sinusitis, bronchitis, and difficulty in breathing. It also acts as an analgesic and relieves pain during arthritis [3, 4, 6].

Turmeric also increases the level of interleukin 10 that have anti-inflammatory activity by blocking inflammatory cytokines' production. It enhances the immune system against pathogens and also has an essential role in preventing asthma [3, 4, 6]. 

Turmeric speed up the wound healing process by stimulating the production of the growth factors. It has a positive effect on tissue and collagen that support the wound healing process and improve the cycle of wound restoration [3, 15, 16].

Improve Vitality and Longevity:

Turmeric reduces the risk of developing different medical ailments that improve and support vitality and longevity. It protects cellular integrity and prevents DNA damage by removing free radicals and relieving oxidative stress. It promotes mental health by reducing the symptoms of depression and stimulating the nervous system. It may alleviate mental stress and improve mood [3, 13, 14].

Studies have also reported the neuroprotective effect of Turmeric. It protects brain cells against toxins, boosts memory and learning capability, and may improve Alzheimer's disease symptoms. A study also proposed that Turmeric reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease via decreasing the accumulation of amyloid, inhibiting CRMP-2 hyperphosphorylation, and preventing hippocampal damage that has a vital role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases [6, 11].

Turmeric helps to improve cancer symptoms, including lung cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer, etc. and slowdowns its progression to other organs. This action is attributed to the activity of CD4+ and CD8+ defensive cells. Turmeric stimulates and increases the level of these cells that kills abnormal cells in the body [6].

Turmeric supports gastrointestinal health by preventing the development and progression of intestinal disorders, including ulcerative colitis, gastric lesions, and ulcer [4,5,6].

Medical studies have reported that Turmeric improves the symptoms of degenerative eye conditions, including central serous chorioretinopathy, which involves retinal microglial cells. It may also relieve other eye conditions such as dry eye, maculopathy, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy [8, 9].

Anti-aging Activity:

Turmeric improves skin texture and possesses anti-aging activity by limiting sebaceous glands' secretion and increasing collagen deposition. It prevents skin damage, improves fine lines, wrinkles, and dark spots. Also, tightens the skin, enhances its firmness, supports skin tone, and provides a younger look. It also reduces the risk of obesity and diabetes via suppressing angiogenesis in adipose tissue and increase adipocyte energy metabolism [3, 4, 5, 10].

Support Cardiovascular, Metabolism, and Joint's function:

Turmeric assists the heart, brain, and joints' normal functioning via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. It helps to improve and support cardiovascular function by reducing the plasma level of triglycerides and total cholesterol. It reduces the level of bad cholesterol and prevents the risk of developing cardiovascular dysfunctions, including atherosclerosis. Also, helps to improve vascular supply and support normal blood pressure [3, 4, 5, 6]. 

Turmeric supports healthy joints via its relieving inflammation and pain-relieving effect. It helps in the reduction of osteoarthritis, bursitis, and rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. Studies have reported that bioactive compounds in Turmeric prevent metabolic syndrome development via decreasing serum concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, improves insulin sensitivity, suppresses adipogenesis, and reduces elevated blood pressure [3, 4, 5].

Warnings/Precautions: 

Turmeric is almost safe and effective against the above discussed medical conditions; however, certain side effects are reported with its use. These side effects include allergic reactions, diarrhea, nausea, yellow stool, and headache. Also, it can increase serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase contents in some individuals.

It is advised not to consume Turmeric in severe conditions of the following diseases.

  • Blood clotting problems 
  • Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease
  • Hepatic dysfunction
  • Gall bladder disease
  • Or have known Hypersensitive to its ingredients.

If you are going to undergo any surgery, it is recommended to stop its consumption two weeks before. Ask your doctor about the use of Turmeric in case of pregnancy or breastfeeding.

Turmeric should not be taken concomitantly with the following medications [12]:

  • Aspirin,
  • Diclofenac
  • Ibuprofen,
  • Enoxaparin,
  • Warfarin,
  • Heparin,
  • Clopidogrel
  • Naproxen
  • Dalteparin

Important note:

Medical studies have reported that Curcuminoid, the active constituent of Turmeric, has low absorption and bioavailability after oral ingestion. It is recommended to take it with black pepper or piperine that increase its bioavailability by 2000%.

References:

  1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287542565_Phytochemistry_of_turmeric_An_overview
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6164907/
  3. Hewlings, S. J., & Kalman, D. S. (2017). Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 6(10), 92. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6100092
  4. Rahmani, A. H., Alsahli, M. A., Aly, S. M., Khan, M. A., & Aldebasi, Y. H. (2018). Role of Curcumin in Disease Prevention and Treatment. Advanced biomedical research, 7, 38. https://doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_147_16
  5. Panahi, Y., Hosseini, M. S., Khalili, N., Naimi, E., Simental-Mendía, L. E., Majeed, M., & Sahebkar, A. (2016). Effects of curcumin on serum cytokine concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 82, 578–582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2016.05.037
  6. Ahmad, R. S., Hussain, M. B., Sultan, M. T., Arshad, M. S., Waheed, M., Shariati, M. A., Plygun, S., & Hashempur, M. H. (2020). Biochemistry, Safety, Pharmacological Activities, and Clinical Applications of Turmeric: A Mechanistic Review. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2020, 7656919. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7656919
  7. Toden, S., & Goel, A. (2017). The Holy Grail of Curcumin and its Efficacy in Various Diseases: Is Bioavailability Truly a Big Concern?. Journal of restorative medicine, 6(1), 27–36. https://doi.org/10.14200/jrm.2017.6.0101
  8. Mazzolani, F., & Togni, S. (2013). Oral administration of a curcumin-phospholipid delivery system for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy: a 12-month follow-up study. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.), 7, 939–945. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S45820
  9. Allegri, P., Mastromarino, A., & Neri, P. (2010). Management of chronic anterior uveitis relapses: efficacy of oral phospholipidic curcumin treatment. Long-term follow-up. Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.), 4, 1201–1206. https://doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S13271
  10. Izem-Meziane, M., Djerdjouri, B., Rimbaud, S., Caffin, F., Fortin, D., Garnier, A., Veksler, V., Joubert, F., & Ventura-Clapier, R. (2012). Catecholamine-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and mPTP opening: protective effect of curcumin. American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 302(3), H665–H674. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00467.2011
  11. Wang, Y., Yin, H., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Han, B., Zeng, Z., Qiao, N., Cui, X., Lou, J., & Li, J. (2013). Amelioration of β-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal axon degeneration by curcumin is associated with suppression of CRMP-2 hyperphosphorylation. Neuroscience letters, 557 Pt B, 112–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.024
  12. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-662/turmeric#
  13. Fusar-Poli, L., Vozza, L., Gabbiadini, A., Vanella, A., Concas, I., Tinacci, S., Petralia, A., Signorelli, M. S., & Aguglia, E. (2020). Curcumin for depression: a meta-analysis. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 60(15), 2643–2653. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1653260
  14. Kulkarni, S. K., & Dhir, A. (2010). An overview of curcumin in neurological disorders. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 72(2), 149–154. https://doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.65012
  15. Mehrabani, D., Farjam, M., Geramizadeh, B., Tanideh, N., Amini, M., & Panjehshahin, M. R. (2015). The healing effect of curcumin on burn wounds in rat. World journal of plastic surgery, 4(1), 29–35.
  16. Akbik, D., Ghadiri, M., Chrzanowski, W., & Rohanizadeh, R. (2014). Curcumin as a wound healing agent. Life sciences, 116(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2014.08.016

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